Cop21 Paris Agreement

The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. [4] [5] Until February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC signed the agreement and 189 became parties to the agreement. [1] Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. The Paris Agreement has a “bottom-up” structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals that states must implement. [32] Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets. [33] Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked. Only the processes governing reporting and verification of these objectives are prescribed by international law. . .

.